Chandra Shekhar Azad

Agricultural Biochemistry

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  • With the establishment of U.P. Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Kanpur in the year 1970, Biochemistry research was initiated as a small biochemistry section under the department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry. Soon after, it was placed under the administrative control of the department of Crop Physiology which was renamed as department of Crop Physiology and Biochemistry for the teaching of Plant Biochemistry made a beginning in 1972 as a course for the award of M.Sc. (Ag.) degree in Plant Physiology. The U.P. Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Kanpur was transferred into a university and thus C.S.Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur was established on March 1, 1975. The university thus adopted the semester system education in 1976 and core and elective courses in Plant Biochemistry were introduced at UG level.
  • Realizing the importance of Biochemistry teaching and research, a separate and independent department of Agricultural Biochemistry came into existence in 1983. Soon after, in 1984, a four semester course for the award of M.Sc. (Ag.) degree in Agricultural Biochemistry was started. In 1986, Ph.D. programme in Agricultural Biochemistry was also introduced. Since then the department are actively engaged in teaching, research and extension activities related to the discipline of Agricultural Biochemistry.


  • To bring about necessary changes for the improvement of teaching and research in the discipline of Agricultural Biochemistry.
  • To conduct interim researches for the improvement of quality of cereals, pulses, oilseeds and vegetables.
  • To conduct studies on utilization of green waste leaves/ foliage, byproduct green biomass/ leaves of crops, by fractionation technology and also on profitable utilization of green fodder crops by this technology. The studies may include Pilot Plant studies to work out the economics of fractionation technology to make useful recommendation of farming community.
  • To conduct studies on the detoxification of oilseed cakes to make them edible particularly rapeseed mustard and linseed.
  • To develop plant products suitable for industrial purposes

Mandate :

    • To conduct of teaching of Agricultural Biochemistry courses both at UG and PG level including the courses of discipline as requirement in other discipline as well.
    • To conduct basic and applied researches in the discipline such as metabolic and enzymatic studies related to Biochemistry and secondary metabolites.

Techniques improving for improving nutritive value/ popping/ shelf life of Agricultural Commodities

  • Improving nutritional quality of chickpea grains by germination: Ungerminated and germinated seed of fifteen chickpea variety/ genotypes were analyzed for various nutritional characteristics to determine differences in its quality. Germination decreased protein content but increased methionine and tryptophan content as compared to ungerminated ones. Germination brought about 3.5 to 8.5 fold enhancement of Ascorbic acid content as compared to ungerminated grains. Germination also brought done levels of antinutritional polyphenols to great extent, thereby improving overall nutritional quality as compared to ungerminated grains. Variety “Radhey” was adjudged to be nutritionally superior as its grains, germinated as well as ungerminated contained highest protein and lower polyphenols.
  • Improving the nutritional quality of Dhokla: For improving protein malnutrition, a high methionine de-oiled cake and mung flour of variety AKT-4 was taken for preparation of Dhokla. It was found in experiment that improved the nutritive value of blends of mung flour and high methionine of sesame cake used in ratio 80:20 and 70:30 in terms of protein, methionine and ash content but decreased fat and carbohydrates in prepared Dhokla and organoleptically acceptable. However increase the proportion of de-oiled sesame cakes (beyond 30%) in mung flour notably decreased the organoleptic attribute of Dhokla.
  • Decortication for nutritional improvement of mung (Vigna radiata L.)seed: A comparative study on the nutritional quality of whole seed and dhal (decorticated splits) of fifteen mung cultivars revealed that dhals are significant superior in respect of protein (24.45%) and content of methionine and tryptophan in proteins (1.29g, 1.24g/100g protein, resp.) than the whole seeds, the corresponding value being 22.65%, 1.03g/100g protein, 1.07g/100g protein, than the whole seeds, respectively. Dhal sample were also low in nutritionally undesirable polyphenols, maximum proteins in both, whole grain (24.68%) while PDM 54 exhibited maximum methionine content in its whole grain (1.5g/100g protein) and dhal (1.8g/100g protein).
  • Nutritional quality of baby corn for table purposes: Ten genotypes/ varieties of maize grown in Rabi summer season were taken to study of nutritive value. Genotype R-2005- 8 showed best contained of total sugar, reducing sugar, Ascorbic acid, dry manner, phosphorus and protein in its baby corn. However, variety Azad Kamal to have best content of edible portion, protein, phosphorus and Ascorbic acid.
  • Improving the shelf life of sunflower oil: Sunflower oil, though consider good for health, has poor shelf life owing his high linoleic acid content (30-40%). Use of TBHQ (an approved food additive) at 0.1% was found to prevent oxidative of spoilage oil that could be satisfactorily stored for 18 months.
  • Storing of tomato under ambient condition: Red ripe fruits (2kg) of each of four open pollinated and four hybrid of tomato were collected and stored in department of Agricultural Biochemistry lab at ambient condition having temperature and relative humidity range between (16.20-19.45°C) and (71.51-69.50%) respectively, followed by qualitative analysis at varies duration of storage viz. 0-DAS, 3-DAS, 6-DAS and 9-DAS. Among the hybrids of tomato, hybrid 9402X Azad Type-2 found to superior most since its fruits exhibited value of TSS, Ascorbic acid, reducing sugar along with shelf life followed by Azad – type-1 at ambient conditions.
  • Enhancing popping quality of maize: Laboratory experiments were conducted for studies of popping quality of maize. The grains of Azad Uttam soaked in various balloon of water (8ml, 10ml, 12ml, 14ml, 16ml, 18ml and 20ml) and various concentrations (8%, 10%, 12%, 14%, 16%, 18% and 20%) of various salts viz. sodium sulphate, potassium sulphate and sodium carbonate. The soaked/ dipped grains of corn of water gave highest expansion volume at 40ml moisture level. However, among the various concentrations of different salts, potassium sulphate soaked/ dipped grains of corn showed the highest expansion volume at 12% concentration level. Bulk density of corn grain dipped water at various amounts decreased than control. Bulk density increased in corn grains at all concentration of sodium carbonate soaked/ dipped while bulk density decreased in corn grains at all concentration of potassium sulphate soaked/dipped. The soaked/dipped corn grains in potassium sulphate gave maximum popping percentage at 20% concentration level among the salts.

Techniques of better utilization of Waste/ Underutilized Resources

  • Processing techniques for better utilization of Bathua (Chenopodium album L.): Bathua collected from wheat fields where it grows as weed, is popular vegetable in north India. Yet information on its nutritive is meager. Investigation carried out on above aspects reveal that bathua, although the rich source of protein (35.4%, dwb), contains alarmingly high amount of oxalates (18.2%, dwb) and phenolic substances (3.48%, dwb) and therefore, needs to be appropriately processed to remove such harmful substances prior to its consumptions.A simple techniques was adopted that can be developed by housewives to remove harmful substances from bathua. Blanching of bathua foliage for five minutes followed by rinsing water removed upto 76% of the oxalates and 59% phenolics. The treated bathua contained higher protein (42.4%) but lower oxalates (4.4%, dwb) and phenolics (1.4%, dwb) than the unprocessed bathua.Since large quantity of bathua foliage is left unutilized in the field where it is handpicked as weed, efforts were made to extract leaf protein for food using crop fractionation process. Bathua foliage being rich in protein was found to be suitable for leaf protein extraction containing 53% protein. Fractionation of bathua proved advantageous not only for utilization of bulk that otherwise goes waste but also reduction of undesirable substance present in it. Bathua foliage is yielding 36gm LPC per kg fresh foliage. Fractionation for LPC extraction removed 71% oxalates, 81% phenolics and 96% fibres of bathua. Carefully prepared, acid wasted bathua LPC containing 61% protein, 4% oxalates, 0.9% phenolics and negligible amount of fibres was for more nutritious than unprocessed bathua.
  • Utilization of vegetable crop residue through fraction: Certain vegetable crop also give a an abundance of byproduct foliage besides main product, which have been utilized for extraction of protein for food/ feed use. Potato, carrot and cauliflower yield 40, 22 and 13q byproduct foliage/ha, fractionation of which produced 835, 265 and 190kg LPC/ha, containing 38, 33 and 55% protein, respectively. Protein carotene- xanthophyll rich LPC has been successfully used to replace GNC in poultry ration.
  • Detoxification of linseed meal for enrichment of wheat flour: Enrichment of cereal flour with oilseeds meals having high protein content has long been advocated to improve the protein level as well as protein quality of the blends but utilization of linseed cake as a food is hampered due to presence of cyanogenic glucoside, a toxic substance. A simple technique has been developed for detoxification of linseed meal to enable its use as food supplement.Incubation of linseed meal at 50% moisture regime for a period of 30 minutes at room temperature removed most of the (79.90%) cyanogens from the linseed meal. A blend of wheat flour and detoxicated linseed meal in the ratio of 80:20 (w/w) can be used for preparation of organoleptically acceptable chapatti having 61% higher protein than in wheat flour chapatti.

Crop Quality improvement Programme

  • Identification of genotypes superior in quality traits: Screening of germplasm of important cereal, pulse, vegetable and oilseed crops for identification of superior genotypes in respect to nutritional/ processing quality traits for their utilization in crop quality improvement programme by the Breeder.
  • Development of crop varieties with improved quality traits: Utilization of superior germplasm identified by the department, in the crop breeding programme by the university Breeders led to the development and release of the following varieties of cereals, vegetables, pulses and oilseeds crops, which have good yield-quality balance.
Crop Variety
Wheat /td> Deva, Indra, Ujiyar, Gangotri, Prasad, Gomti, Halna, Atal, Maghar, Shatabhi, K1006, Naina
Barley Geetanjali, Preeti, Ritabhara, Haritma, Narmada, Huskless, Manjula,K1155
Maize Azad Uttam, Azad Kamal, Sharadmani
Toria Bhawani, Pitambri
Rai Varuna, Rohini, Vaibhav, Kanti, Maya, Vardan, Urvashi, Basanti, Ashirvad
Groundnut Prakash, Chitra, Kaushal, Amber, TG-37-A
Linseed Gaurav, Shikha, Parvati, Rashmi, Sheela, Sharda, Shekhar, Padmini
Sesame T 78, Shekhar, Pragati, T 13, Tarun
Gram KWR 108, KGD 1168, Sadabahar, Avrodhi
Lentil K 75, Shekhar-2, Shekhar-3, KL S218
Moong T 44, K 851
Pigeonpea KA 32-1 (Amar), KA 91-25 (Azad)
Urd Azad Urd 1, Shekhar 1, Azad Urd 2, Urd Shekhar 2, Urd Shekhar 3, KU 309, KU 96-3
Coriander Azad Dhaniya 1
Bitter gourd Kalyanpur Sona
Bottle gourd Azad Harit, Azad Nutan, Azad Sankar 1
Bean Rajni, KT-2
Chilli Chanchal, Azad Mirch 1, Azad Achar 1
Brinjal KS 224, KS 235, Azad Hybird
Tomato Azad T6, Azad T5, Azad T3, KS 118, KTH 1, KTH 2

Techniques for enhancement of oil content and their quality

  • The seed yield and oil yield of sunflower was increased (27.16%) with the application of NPK @ 80-60-40 kg/ha as compared to 0-0-0, 40-0-0, 60-0-0, 40-30-20 kg/ha during the spring summer season grown of sunflower crop.
  • The oil content of different sized capitula/ head of sunflower ranged from 14-20 cm. The capitula/ head of medium sized viz. 17-18 cm of diameter were found to have significantly higher oil content. An increase/ decrease in diameter of capitula/ head (above 18cm and below 17cm), the oil content decreased as compared to medium diameter of capitula/ head.
  • Under elite seed production trails of sunflower only 18% entire population of single plant progenies was found to maintain their oil content more than 43% in variety-EC 68414. However the percentage of entire population on elite seed production was increased to 44% during the next year having more than 43% of oil.
  • A comparative study of oil built up pattern in sunflower was done in grown Kharif and Rabi summer season. Four EC-68414, EC-68415, KBSH-1 and Morden were grown in Kharif and Rabi summer season continuously three years. The pattern of oil built up at weekly intervals was 2%,10%, 20% 30%, 35%, 40% and 43% during 1st ,2nd ,3rd 4th , 5th and 6th weeks after anthesis respectively in both the seasons. The accumulation of oil was highest at 2nd week and 3rd week during Rabi summer and Kharif seasons respectively.
  • Fifteen entries of sunflower were grown uniform fertility conditions. The capitula of sunflower were randomly selected and tentatively divided into three equal zones such as outer, middle and inner across the total diameter. The oil content was decreased in middle and inner zones as compared to seed located in outer zone. An increased / decreased of linoleic and oleic acid were 4% in seed located from outer (62.11% & 27.8%) to inner zone (65.5% & 23.31%) respectively. The shelf life of seed located in outer periphery was highest as compared to inner and middle zones.
  • With comparison of grown crop of groundnut in rainy and spring summer season, the oil content was 2% higher in spring summer season than that of rainy season. On average basis, the percentage of oleic acid was 6% higher in spring summer season in comparison to rainy season. Increase of oleic acid follow a parallel decrease in linoleic acid 7-8% in spring summer season grown as compared to rainy season. Linolenic acid was increased simultaneously arachidic acid was decreased in spring summer season in comparison to rainy season. Among the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid was significantly (about 2%) while in steric acid, the trend was reversed during spring season as compared to rainy season.

Techniques for enhancement of popping quality of corn

  • Grains of corn variety- Azad Uttam was taken from maize breeder of this University for enhancing the popping quality of grains soaked/dipped with various vegetable oils as well as various dry edible salts. The range of variability bulk density, popping percentage, grain weight loss during popping and expansion volume were ranged from 0.68-0.89g/ml, 85-96%, 0.2-2.2% and 337-494ml, respectively. The popping percentage showed a positively and significantly correlated between grain soaked/dipped with various vegetable oils including an application of sedha salt in grains soaked/dipped with various vegetable oils. Grains soaked/dipped with soyabean oil of corn was found most superior from popping point of view, as it showed significantly highest volume expansion and popping percentage. However, the use of dry sedha salt grain soaked/dipped with various vegetable oils of corn gave significantly value of popping percentage and volume expand.
  • Grains of Azad Uttam soaked in various volume of water (8ml, 10ml, 12ml, 14ml, 16ml, 18ml and 20ml) and various concentration (8%, 10%, 12%,14%, 16%, 18% and 20%) of various salts viz. sodium sulphate, potassium sulphate and sodium carbonate. The soaked grains of corn of water gave highest expansion volume at 40ml moisture level. However, among the various concentrations of different salts, potassium sulphate soaked grains of corn the highest expansion volume at 12% concentration level. Bulk density increased in corn grains at all concentration of sodium carbonate soaked while bulk density decreased in corn grains at all concentration of potassium sulphate soaked. The maximum popping percentage in soaked corn in potassium sulphate was found at 20% concentration level among the salts.


Practical Manuals
  • Practical Manual on ELEMENTARY PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY (2017)for B.Sc. Hons (Horticulture) Authors: Lallu Singh, Rakesh Babu, Nand Kumar, Madhu Vajpeyi & Mukesh Mohan, published by CSAUA&T, Kanpur.
  • Practical Manual on ELEMENTARY BIOCHEMISTRY (2004) for B.Sc. Hons (Agriculture) Authors: Pitam Singh, Lallu Singh & P.S. Kendulkar, published by CSAUA&T, Kanpur.
  • Practical Manual on BIOCHEMISTRY (2014) for B.Sc. Hons (Agriculture) Authors: Madhu Vajpeyi, Lallu Singh & Rakesh Babu published by CSAUA&T, Kanpur.

Published Book

  • Yadav, R.K. and Singh, L (2021). Fundamentals of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology published by Bhavya Books (BET)TM New Delhi, India

Research Papers

  • Babu, R.; Srivastava, A.S; Singh, L. & Nadeem, S.K. (2018) Quality Evaluation of Some Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties. Indian J. Agric. Biochem, 31(1), 76-78
  • Kannaujia, D.; Vajpeyi, M & Lallu (2018) Influence of plant growth regulators on some Physico-Chemical constituents of seeds of Mustard grown under water stress. Indian J. Agric. Biochem, 31(1), 82-85.
  • Babu, R.; Singh, L.; Srivastava, A.S.; Singh, S.; Shukla, D. & Pyare, L. (2018) Quality evaluation of some desi and kabuli varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).International Journal of Current Advance Research, 7(6), 2341-2343.
  • Singh, L.; Srivastava, N. & Kumar, K. (2018) Nutrional evaluation of some kabuli and desi varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Indian J. Agric. Biochem, 31(2), 195-197.
  • Kumar, S.; Singh, L. & Singh, H.C. (2018) Quality evaluation of some varieties/genotypes of popcorn (Zea mays everta) Indian J. Agric. Biochem, 31(2), 151-156.
  • Sonakar, S.; Mililata; Kumar, N. & Yadav, S. (2018) Comparative study ondietary food habits of adloscent girls of urban, rural and slum areas. Inter. J Adv. Res. Dev., 3 (2), 486-489.
  • Uttamrao, J.M.; Babu, R.; Tenzin, T.; Manhas, S.; Bhoyar, V.; Solanki, G. & Kumar, S.(2018) Physico-chemical evaluation of certain promising varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown along with bank of Ganga river in Uttar Pradesh. Intern. Journal of Chemical Studies, 6(5), 2160-2164.
  • Babu, R.; Srivastava, A.S. & Singh, S. (2018) Physico-biochemical evaluation of certain promosing varieties/genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Journal of the Kalash Science, 1(6), 1-3.
  • Kumar, V.; Singh, L.; Katiyar, A. & Singh, H.C. (2019) Effect of water and salts on popping quality of corn variety- Azad Uttam. Indian J. Agric. Biochem, 32(2), 160-165.
  • Srivastava, N.; Katiyar, A. & Singh, L. (2019) Quality evaluation of grains, flours and dough of some varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for chapatti and bread making. Indian J. Agric. Biochem, 32(2), 191-194.
  • Katiyar, A. & Mishra, S.P. (2019) Effect of sulphur on Biochemical characteristics in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown under rainfed conditions. Indian J. Agric. Biochem, 32(2), 177-182.
  • Katiyar, Alka and Mishra, S.P. (2020) Seed storage protein profiling of sulphur applicated chickpea varieties grown under rainfed condition. Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry, 33(2):184-187.
  • Katiyar, Alka and Mishra, S.P. (2020) Peroxidase and Superoxide Dismutase enzyme activities in sulphur applicated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties grown under rainfed condition. Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry, 33(1):87-92.
  • Chandan., Babu, R., Rai, G. and Kumar,S. (2020) Quality characteristics of certain promising varieties/genotyope of Urd Bean (Vigna mungo L.) Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry, 33(2):105-114

Awards/ recognition of the Scientists/ Teachers/Faculty

S.No. Name & Designation seminar/symposia/conferences Place Date
1. Dr. Nand Kumar Scientist of the year Award Bangkok (Thailand) Jan 27- Feb 01,2020
2. Dr. Alka Katiyar Guest Faculty Young Scientist Award CSAUA&T (Kanpur) Feb 22, 2020

Dr. Alka Katiyar, Teaching Assosiate, Department of Agricultural Biochemistry, C.S.A.U.A. &T, Kanpur has been honoured the Young Scientist Award of Indian Society for Plant Physiology in North Zonal Seminar on Crop Productivity & Stress Management” at Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology,Kanpur on February 22, 2020 during Oral Presentation on the entitled “ Characterization of Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Affected by Application of Sulphur in Chickpea Grown Under Rainfed Condition.


Dr. Nand Kumar got Scientist of the year



  • The Department is regularly running P.G. programme leading to the award of M.Sc.(Ag.) and Ph.D. degrees in Agricultural. Biochemistry.
  • Every year 6 student in M.Sc.(Ag.) and 2 students in Ph.D. programme are admitted in the Department.
  • M.Sc. (Ag) and Ph.D. Students are required to conduct research and submit thesis in the partial fulfillment of the award of respective degrees
  • The faculty members of the Department have been teaching Biochemistry course to B.Sc. Hons (Agriculture), B.Sc. Hons (Forestry) and B.Sc. Hons (Horticulture) and B.Sc. Hons (Home Science) students of the university.
  • In last five years, 10 students at M.Sc. (Ag) level and 3 students at Ph.D. level have been awarded respective degrees in Agricultural Biochemistry by the University.
  • Department is offering revised courses suggested by Dean’s committee constituted by ICAR.

Courses offered in U.G. and P.G. Programmes

Ph. D. Programme
S.No Course No. Title of Courses Credit Hrs. Semester
1 ABC-601 Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids and Proteins 3(2+1) I
2 ABC-603 Biochemistry of Crop Quality 4(3+1) I
3 ABC-602 Immunochemistry 2 (2+0) II
4 ABC-604 Agricultural Biotechnology 3 (3+0) II
5 ABC-605 Biochemistry of Biotic and Abiotic Stresses 3(3+0) III
6 ABC-606 Course Seminar 1(1+0) III
M.Sc. (Ag.) Programme
S No. Course No. Title of Courses Credit Hrs. Semester
1 ABC-501 Basic Biochemistry 4 (3+1) I
2 ABC-502 Intermediary Metabolism 3 (3+0) I
3 ABC-503 Enzymology 3 (2+1) II
4 ABC-505 Techniques in Biochemistry 3 (1+2) II
5 ABC-507 Plant Biochemistry 3 (3+0) II
6 ABC-504 Molecular Biology 3 (2+1) III
7 ABC-509 Food and Nutritional Biochemistry 3 (2+1) III
8 ABC-599 Course Seminar 3 (3+0) III
9 Thesis 15(15+0) IV
Undergraduate Programme
B.Sc. Hons Agriculture, B.Sc. Hons in Forestry, B.Sc. Hons in Horticulture, B.Sc. Hons in Community Science
S No. Course No. Title of Courses Credit Hrs. Semester
1 ABC-111 Fundamentals of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 3(2+1) I
2 BSH-112 Elementary Plant Biochemistry 2(1+1) I
3 SBS-113 Plant Biochemistry 2(1+1) I
4 BSH-202 Biochemistry 3(2+1) III

About the faculty of the Department

Employee ID : CSAR145
Name : Dr.Rakesh Babu
Department : Agricultural Biochemistry
Designation : Assistant Professor
E-mail :
E-mail2 :
Mobile No. : 09450141699
Qualification : M.Sc. (Ag) in Agricultural Biochemistry, Ph. D in Agricultural. Biochemistry
Key Area/Specialization : Legumes quality
Employee ID : CSAN 007
Name : Dr. Nand Kumar
Department : Agricultural Biochemistry
Designation : Assistant Professor/Assistant Biochemist(Rice)
E-mail :
E-mail2 :
Mobile No. : 09415441077, 7007262458
Qualification :  Ph. D in Agricultural. Biochemistry
Key Area/Specialization : Rice Quality